Friday, June 28, 2019

                                 World Pharmacology 2019

Drug overdose:

A drug overdose is the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities much greater than are recommended. Typically it is used for cases when a risk to health will potentially result. An overdose may result in a toxic state or death.

The word "overdose" implies that there is a common safe dosage and usage for the drug; therefore, the term is commonly only applied to drugs, not poisons, even though some poisons are harmless at a low enough dosage. Drug overdose is caused to commit suicide, the result of intentional or unintentional misuse of medication. Intentional misuse leading to overdose can include using prescribed or unprescribed drugs in excessive quantities in an attempt to produce euphoria. Usage of illicit drugs of unexpected purity, in large quantities, or after a period of drug abstinence can also induce overdose. Cocaine users who inject intravenously can easily overdose accidentally, as the margin between a pleasurable drug sensation and an overdose is small. Unintentional misuse can include errors in dosage caused by failure to read or understand product labels. Accidental overdoses may also be the result of over-prescription, failure to recognize a drug's active ingredient, or unwitting ingestion by children. A common unintentional overdose in young children involves multi-vitamins containing iron.

Signs and Symptoms:

Signs and symptoms of an overdose vary depending on the drug or exposure to toxins. The symptoms can often be divided into differing toxidromes. This can help one determine what class of drug or toxin is causing the difficulties.

Symptoms of opioid overdoses include slow breathing, heart rate and pulse. Opioid overdoses can also cause pinpoint pupils, and blue lips and nails due to low levels of oxygen in the blood. A person experiencing an opioid overdose might also have muscle spasms, seizures and decreased consciousness. A person experiencing an opiate overdose usually will not wake up even if their name is called or if they are shaken vigorously.


Using drugs at an early age can cause changes in the developing brain and increase the likelihood of progressing to drug addiction. Taking a highly addictive drug. Some drugs, such as stimulants, cocaine or opioid painkillers, may result in faster development of addiction than other drugs.

Drugs that are psychoactive, such as cannabis, alcohol, ecstasy and heroin, have the ability to affect your mood. They can arouse certain emotions or dampen down others. This may be why you use them. The changes in your mood or behavior caused by drugs are the result of changes to your brain.

To know more about recent researches from our eminent speakers, & exhibitions kindly join with us at World Pharmacology Congress 2019 | Dubai | December 09-10


Friday, June 21, 2019

               World Pharmacology 2019

The Toxicology is the branch of science that deals with the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms and leads to fatal condition in living organism.
Toxicology is interface of chemistry and biology.
Pharmacology: therapeutic effect
Toxicology: toxicosis or disease effect
Food toxicology deals with physical, chemical and biological properties of food particles and detection of toxic substances in food, and their diseases and infections.
Some food items are poisonous and some are medicinal, stimulation, hallucinatory, or narcotic effects.

Toxicology in two categories: basic and Fundamental. Fundamental work on the molecular and biological processes of toxic substances is called Basic toxicology. Applying scientific knowledge to practical problems is called Applied Toxicology.
Toxicology vs. Risk analysis: In majority of Risk analysis only the applied toxicology is used to examine whether there is the presence of chemical, natural and anthropogenic is used. Risk analysis is broadly classified to include Risk assessment, Risk characterization, Risk communication, Risk management. The role of toxicologists performs scientific tests on bodily fluids and tissue samples to identify any drugs or chemicals present in the body. ... As part of a team investigating a crime, a forensic toxicologist will isolate and identify any substances in the body that may have contributed to the crime, such as: Alcohol.

Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Human health risk assessment: Predictive modelling of the toxicology to human health posed by the exposure to toxicants. • For constituents that are systemic toxicants, the threat can be expressed in terms of a hazard quotient. • Hazard Quotient = Dose ÷ Toxicity Factor. Systemic toxicity is a threshold phenomenon. – Increasing exposure (dose) of a chemical will cross a threshold when biological effects will start to occur. – The dose is the total dose attributable all routes of exposure. Dose is modeled with the following general equation (unit conversion factors are used as needed): Dose = CC × CR × EF ÷ (BW × UCF) • CC — constituent • CR — contact rate • EF — exposure frequency. • BW — body weight. • UCF — unit conversion factor.

To know more about recent researches from our eminent speakers, & exhibitions kindly join with us at World Pharmacology Congress 2019 | Dubai | December 09-10


Friday, June 14, 2019

                                World Pharmacology_2019

 Preterm Birth:

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks' gestational age. These babies are known as preemies or premies. Symptoms of preterm labour include uterine contractions which occur more often than every ten minutes or the leaking of fluid from the vagina. Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays in development, hearing problems and sight problems. These risks are greater the earlier a baby is born.

The cause of preterm birth is often not known. Risk factors include diabetes, high blood pressure, being pregnant with more than one baby, being either obese or underweight, a number of vaginal infections, tobacco smoking and psychological stress, among others. It is recommended that labour not be medically induced before 39 weeks unless required for other medical reasons. The same recommendation applies to caesarean section. Medical reasons for early delivery include preeclampsia.

Knowing which bacteria lurk in the mother's cervix as well as whether she possesses a particular type of immune factor, could hold the key to telling doctors how likely she is to enter Premature_labour, and in turn allow them to take preventive measures.

While sparing or encouraging the protective natural flora of the cervix, the researcher’s workout an effective method to selectively fight the bacteria that predispose or trigger Preterm_birth.

Apart from infant_death, these complications result in survivors with genuine therapeutic issue, for example, cerebral palsy, loss of vision, and mental disability, which require lifelong care and enormous health related expenditure.

These outcomes could lead the development of precise diagnostic_death for women at high risk of preterm_birth. They also recommend new interventional therapeutics for this troublesome condition, for example, immunomodulatory drugs, and probiotics, or other measures to control the microbiome of the cervix and vagina. 

The main categories of causes of preterm birth are preterm labour induction and spontaneous preterm labour. Signs and symptoms of preterm labour include four or more uterine contractions in one hour. In contrast to false labour, true labour is accompanied by cervical dilatation and effacement. Also, vaginal bleeding in the third trimester, heavy pressure in the pelvis, or abdominal or back pain could be indicators that a preterm birth is about to occur. A watery discharge from the vagina may indicate premature rupture of the membranes that surround the baby. While the rupture of the membranes may not be followed by labour, usually delivery is indicated as infection is a serious threat to both fetus and mother. In some cases, the cervix dilates prematurely without pain or perceived contractions, so that the mother may not have warning signs until very late in the birthing process.

To know more about recent researches from our eminent speakers, & exhibitions kindly join with us at World Pharmacology Congress 2019 | Dubai | December 09-10


Friday, June 7, 2019

Drug Design based on Bioinformatics Tools:

The processes of designing a new drug using bioinformatics tools have open a new area of research. However, computational techniques assist one in searching drug target and in designing drug in silco, but it takes long time and money. In order to design a new drug one need to follow the following path.

Identify Target Disease: One needs to know all about the disease and existing or traditional remedies. It is also important to look at very similar afflictions and their known treatments.
Target identification alone is not sufficient in order to achieve a successful treatment of a disease. A real drug needs to be developed. This drug must influence the target protein in such a way that it does not interfere with normal metabolism. One way to achieve this is to block activity of the protein with a small molecule. Bioinformatics methods have been developed to virtually screen the target for compounds that bind and inhibit the protein. Another possibility is to find other proteins that regulate the activity of the target by binding and forming a complex.
Study Interesting Compounds: One needs to identify and study the lead compounds that have some activity against a disease. These may be only marginally useful and may have severe side effects. These compounds provide a starting point for refinement of the chemical structures.
Detect the Molecular Bases for Disease: If it is known that a drug must bind to a particular spot on a particular protein or nucleotide then a drug can be tailor made to bind at that site. This is often modelled computationally using any of several different techniques. Traditionally, the primary way of determining what compounds would be tested computationally was provided by the researchers understanding of molecular interactions. A second method is the brute force testing of large numbers of compounds from a database of available structures.

Rational drug design techniques: These techniques attempt to reproduce the researchers understanding of how to choose likely compounds built into a software package that is capable of modelling a very large number of compounds in an automated way. Many different algorithms have been used for this type of testing, many of which were adapted from artificial intelligence applications. The complexity of biological systems makes it very difficult to determine the structures of large biomolecules.

Refinement of compounds: Once you got a number of lead compounds have been found, computational and laboratory techniques have been very successful in refining the molecular structures to give a greater drug activity and fewer side effects. This is done both in the laboratory and computationally by examining the molecular structures to determine which aspects are responsible for both the drug activity and the side effects.
Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR)This computational technique should be used to detect the functional group in your compound in order to refine your drug. This can be done using QSAR that consists of computing every possible number that can describe a molecule then doing an enormous curve fit to find out which aspects of the molecule correlate well with the drug activity or side effect severity. This information can then be used to suggest new chemical modifications for synthesis and testing.
Solubility of Molecule: One need to check whether the target molecule is water soluble or readily soluble in fatty tissue will affect what part of the body it becomes concentrated in. The ability to get a drug to the correct part of the body is an important factor in its potency. Ideally there is a continual exchange of information between the researchers doing QSAR studies, synthesis and testing. These techniques are frequently used and often very successful since they do not rely on knowing the biological basis of the disease which can be very difficult to determine.
Drug design uses: computational approaches to discover, develop, and analyse drugs and similar biologically active molecules. The basic objective of these methods is to predict the nature and strength of binding of given molecule a target.

Friday, May 31, 2019

World Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the main branch of biology concerned with the study of Drug or Medication action, where a drug can be broadly Specify as any man-made, natural, or endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell and tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharma on is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the communication that occurs between a living organism and chemicals that affect abnormal or normal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, toxicology, chemical biology, therapy, and medical applications and antpathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems. Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are frequently confused. Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research, discovery, and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organism function in relation to these chemicals. In contrast, pharmacy, a health services profession, is concerned with application of the principles learned from pharmacology in its clinical settings; whether it is in a dispensing or clinical care role. In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient cares, for pharmacy practice, and the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology.

Pharmacological knowledge is used to advise chemotherapy in medicine and pharmacy. The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Federation of European Pharmacological Societies and European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics are organisations representing standardization and regulation of clinical and scientific pharmacology. Systems for medical classification of drugs with pharmaceutical codes have been developed. These include the National Drug Code (NDC), administered by Food and Drug Administration; Drug Identification Number (DIN), administered by Health Canada under the Food and Drugs Act; Hong Kong Drug Registration, administered by the Pharmaceutical Service of the Department of Health (Hong Kong) and National Pharmaceutical Product Index in South Africa. Hierarchical systems have also been developed, including the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (AT, or ATC/DDD), administered by World Health Organization; Generic Product Identifier (GPI).

Thursday, March 14, 2019

New Cholesterol-bringing down Medication could help Patients Powerless to take Statins

Another class of oral cholesterol-bringing down medication could help patients powerless to take statins because of reactions. The discoveries originate from the biggest examination to date to test the viability and wellbeing of bempedoic corrosive, an oral drug—yet to be endorsed in Europe—that hinders the body's capacity to make the structure squares of cholesterol.

The exploration, distributed reports on discoveries from in excess of 2,200 patients and is the first to quantify the security and viability of the new treatment against fake treatment in patients with an expanded danger of heart assault and stroke.

An excessive amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (generally called "bad cholesterol") in the blood can prompt plaques that stop up veins and increment the shot of heart assault and stroke. Numerous patients at higher hazard, for example, those with diabetes or acquired conditions, or the individuals who have recently had heart assault or stroke, are recommended cholesterol-bringing down medications, similar to statins, to decrease their hazard.

Like statins, bempedoic corrosive works by obstructing a key compound utilized by the body to make cholesterol, for this situation a chemical called ATP-citrate lyase. In the most recent investigation, a sum of 2,230 patients with elevated cholesterol levels (at any rate 1.8 mmol/L or 70 mg/dL) who were taking cholesterol-bringing down medications (high-or moderate-force portion statins or potentially ezetimibe) were arbitrarily picked to get either the new treatment or fake treatment for 1 year.

Patients were drawn from the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Canada, and the United States, and were on fluctuating forces of cholesterol-bringing down treatment regimens. The preliminary additionally incorporated a little extent of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, an acquired condition which causes expanded cholesterol levels and raises the danger of cardiovascular illness and strokes. Following 3 months of treatment, analysts found that bempedoic corrosive diminished patients' LDL cholesterol levels from gauge by a normal of 18.1% contrasted with the fake treatment gathering. Moreover, they found that the treatment was viable regardless of the force of the patient's current cholesterol-bringing down treatment.

The treatment was likewise appeared to be all around endured by patients, with some expanded frequency of gout—because of slight increments in dimensions of uric corrosive in the blood—however no expanded rate of genuine wellbeing conditions between the two gatherings.

By and large, these most recent investigations demonstrate that not exclusively is the treatment for the most part very much endured being equivalent with fake treatment, and conceivably safe over longer periods, however, that when added to high-force statin treatment it can additionally lessen LDL cholesterol levels. The continuous preliminary, called 'CLEAR OUTCOMES', is extraordinarily trying considerably longer-term security and whether this methodology lessens cardiovascular malady notwithstanding bringing down cholesterol. 

Friday, March 8, 2019

New Model of Brain Signaling

The arrival of neurotransmitters and hormones in the body is firmly constrained by complex protein apparatus inserted in cell membranes.

Controlling that apparatus with medications could improve treatment of maladies running from diabetes to Parkinson's ailment. Advancement has been moderate, be that as it may, on account of the absence of an animal model to test the impacts of potential medications up to this point.

A Pharmacologist detailed the primary animal model of a vital criticism instrument, basically a "shut-off valve" for neurotransmitter and hormone discharge through SNARE complex-intervened film combination

In a paper included on the front of the diary, the scientists announced that when they crippled the shut-off valve in nerve cells in the cerebrums of mice through hereditary controls, the animals displayed critical shortages in engine coordination, psychological and different practices.

Researchers realize how to adjust SNARE and turn on the neurotransmitter "spigot." But as of not long ago, they had no clue what may occur in the event that they did.

We would now be able to research that all the more completely with this animal display. Such a significant number of things that couldn't be taken a gander at previously or were actually difficult to (examine) — presently they will be less demanding to take a gander at.

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the essential revelations. Implanted in the membranes of about each phone, GPCRs are the most widely recognized course to flag pathways found in nature. 66% of all medications target them.

GPCRs are turned on and off by G-proteins inside the cell. G proteins comprise of two subunits—alpha and beta/gamma—the two of which can invigorate free flagging pathways.

Quite a while prior, researchers demonstrated how the beta/gamma subunit of an inhibitory G protein keeps intracellular vesicles containing neurotransmitters from intertwining to the cell film and spilling their substance into the extracellular space between nerve cells—the neural connection.

It does this in two different ways: by keeping the stream of calcium through "calcium channels" from enabling vesicles to the breaker to the film and by "turning off" the SNARE receptor complex.

The specialists likewise found that the two systems for counteracting vesicle combination, one that follows up on calcium channels and the other on SNARE, are synergistic. Blocking the two outcomes in a more dominant restraint of neurotransmitter discharge than blocking either independently.